Voting is under way in Israel in what is expected to be a close racebetween Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's party and a centre-left alliance.
The centre-left Zionist Union promises to repair relations with Palestinians and the international community.
Mr Netanyahu, whose party has trailed in opinion polls, vowed on Monday not to allow the creation of a Palestinian state if he wins a fourth term.
The economy and living standards have emerged as key issues.
Polls opened at 07:00 (05:00 GMT) and are due to close at 22:00.
Results could be declared soon afterwards, but a lengthy period of negotiations over the formation of the next coalition government may follow.