Malaysian Airlines Flight MH17 crashed as a result of aRussian-made Buk missile, the Dutch Safety Board says.
The missile hit the front left of the plane causing other parts break off, it said in a final report into the July 2014 disaster, which killed 298 people.
The West and Ukraine say Russian-backed rebels brought down the Boeing 777, but Russia blames Ukrainian forces.
The report does not say who fired the missile, but says airspace over eastern Ukraine should have been closed.
The plane - flying from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur - crashed at the height of the conflict between government troops and the pro-Russian separatists.
Among the victims were 196 Dutch nationals and 10 Britons.