Millions of immigrants living illegally in the US will be allowed toapply for work permits under a major shake-up unveiled by President Barack Obama.
They include immigrants living in the US for five years who have children staying legally in the US.
Up to five million are expected to benefit from a reform package forced through using executive orders, which allow Mr Obama to bypass Congress.
Republicans have accused the president of an "illegal power-grab".
There are estimated to be 11 million illegal immigrants in the US.
Under Mr Obama's plan, undocumented parents of children who are US citizens or legal residents will be able to apply for work permits lasting three years.
Only parents who have lived in the US for five years will qualify - an estimated four million people.
Hundreds of thousands more will benefit from other changes, including a decision to broaden a scheme giving temporary legal status to those who arrived in the US as children.